What is an IPO? IPO Basics, Investment Tips, Meaning

What is an IPO? IPO Basics, Investment Tips, Meaning

An initial public offering (IPO) is when a private company offers new shares of its stock to the public for the first time. This allows the company to collect money from the public by selling shares.

When a private company becomes public, it’s an important time for the existing private investors because they can now see the rewards of their investment. It also gives a chance for the general public to buy shares in the company. This article will help you understand what is IPO and how it happens.

IPO Meaning

IPO, short for Initial Public Offering, is a way for a private company to become a public company by selling shares. When a company decides to do an IPO, it means they want to raise money from the public by offering shares. This is a great chance for regular people to invest in the company and potentially make money from their investment.

In the beginning, a private company grows with its initial investors, founders, and stakeholders. When the company reaches a point where the management feels confident enough to follow SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) rules and use the public’s money to grow, they decide to do an Initial Public Offering. This means they offer shares of the company to the public, giving people the opportunity to become stakeholders in the company.

How does an Initial Public Offering (IPO) Work?

When a company decides to do an IPO, it’s usually to get money for the future, make it easy for people to buy and sell their assets, raise more money from investors, or let existing investors sell their shares.

In the beginning, the company shares details about the IPO in a document called a prospectus. This document has a lot of information about what the company plans to do with the money and other important details.

After the IPO is announced, the company’s stock is ready to be traded on the stock exchange. The stock exchange sets rules for how many shares need to be available for trading, both in absolute terms and as a percentage of all the company shares.

Types of IPO:

These are the common types of IPO in the stock market below: 

  1. Fixed Price Offering
  • Companies set a fixed price for the initial share sale.
  • Investors learn about the predetermined stock price.
  • Market demand is revealed after issue closure.
  • Investors must pay the full share price with their applications.
  1. Book Building Offering
  • Company provides a 20% price band on stocks.
  • Investors bid on shares before the final price is determined.
  • Bids specify quantity and price.
  • Floor price is the lowest, cap price is the highest.
  • Final share price is influenced by investor bids.

Why do Companies Launch IPOs?

Companies decide to launch IPOs for only two main reasons. The first is to get more money, and the second is to give back money to the first investors who supported the company in the beginning.

When a company releases an IPO, it means they are opening themselves up to the public. This gives regular people a chance to invest in the company. With an IPO, a company can collect a lot more money than it could from private investors alone.

Another reason a company might think about doing an IPO is that it attracts the first investors. These initial supporters have the option to sell their shares in the company and make a profit from their initial investment.

Consider these key points when venturing into IPO investments.

  • Research the company’s background, financials, and future prospects before investing.
  • Examine the company’s financial statements, including revenue, profit margins, and debts.
  • Assess the potential for growth by analyzing the company’s plans, market trends, and industry forecasts.
  • Take note of the IPO locking period, which restricts selling or trading stocks immediately after the initial investment.
  • Plan a clear investment strategy based on financial goals, risk tolerance, and holding duration.
  • Monitor overall market conditions, as market volatility can impact IPO performance.
  • Familiarize yourself with IPO details, such as the number of shares, offering price, and special conditions.
  • Avoid concentrating all funds in a single IPO; diversify your portfolio for risk management.

By considering these factors, investors can make informed decisions when participating in an IPO, enhancing the likelihood of a successful investment experience.


BlinkX, the online stock trading app, offers a versatile platform enabling users to trade in various financial assets, including IPOs, stocks, bank nifty, bonds, and more. An Initial Public Offering (IPO) is a crucial financial move for a private company, allowing it to raise capital and attract investors. It’s subject to SEBI rules, and understanding the IPO process is essential. This article provides insights into the meaning, workings, and reasons companies choose IPOs. It also highlights key considerations for investors, promoting informed decision-making and enhancing the potential for a successful investment experience.

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