Freya Parker

Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, or waking up. Two prominent types of parasomnias are insomnia and sleepwalking, which significantly affect an individual’s sleep quality and overall health. Understanding these conditions, their causes, symptoms, and treatments can help manage and mitigate their impact on daily life.

Understanding Insomnia

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder where individuals have difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early and not being able to go back to sleep. This condition can be acute, lasting for days or weeks, or chronic, persisting for months or even years. Insomnia affects people of all ages, although it is more prevalent among older adults and women.

Causes of Insomnia

The causes of insomnia are multifaceted, involving a combination of psychological, physical, and environmental factors:

  1. Psychological Factors: Stress, anxiety, and depression are significant contributors to insomnia. The mind’s inability to relax due to persistent worries or emotional distress can prevent the onset of sleep or lead to frequent awakenings during the night.
  2. Medical Conditions: Chronic pain, asthma, diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and other medical conditions can interfere with sleep.
  3. Medications: Certain medications for conditions like hypertension, asthma, and depression can disrupt sleep patterns.
  4. Lifestyle Factors: Irregular sleep schedules, excessive caffeine or alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity can contribute to insomnia.
  5. Environmental Factors: Noise, light, and uncomfortable sleeping conditions can hinder the ability to fall and stay asleep.
Symptoms of Insomnia

Insomnia manifests in various ways, including:

  • Difficulty falling asleep despite feeling tired
  • Waking up frequently during the night
  • Waking up too early in the morning
  • Feeling unrefreshed after a night’s sleep
  • Daytime fatigue or sleepiness
  • Irritability, depression, or anxiety
  • Difficulty concentrating or remembering things
Impact of Insomnia

Chronic insomnia can have severe repercussions on both physical and mental health. It increases the risk of developing conditions such as hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. The cognitive impairments associated with insomnia, such as difficulty concentrating and memory problems, can affect work performance and daily activities. Additionally, insomnia can exacerbate mental health issues like anxiety and depression, creating a vicious cycle of sleep disruption and psychological distress.

Treatment of Insomnia

Treatment for insomnia often involves a combination of behavioral therapies and medications:

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I): This is considered the first-line treatment for chronic insomnia. CBT-I helps individuals change negative thoughts and behaviors that contribute to sleep problems. Techniques include stimulus control, sleep restriction, and relaxation training.
  2. Medications: In some cases, doctors may prescribe sleep aids or medications to help manage insomnia. These can include benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and melatonin receptor agonists. However, long-term use of sleep medications is generally discouraged due to the risk of dependence and side effects.
  3. Lifestyle Changes: Improving sleep hygiene by maintaining a regular sleep schedule, creating a comfortable sleep environment, and avoiding stimulants like caffeine and nicotine can help alleviate insomnia.

Understanding Sleepwalking

Sleepwalking, or somnambulism, is a parasomnia characterized by complex behaviors performed while in a state of partial arousal from deep sleep, typically during the first third of the night. These behaviors can range from sitting up in bed and looking around to walking around the house or even driving a car. Sleepwalkers often have no memory of the episode upon waking.

Causes of Sleepwalking

The exact cause of sleepwalking is not well understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic, physiological, and environmental factors:

  1. Genetics: Sleepwalking tends to run in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition. If one or both parents have a history of sleepwalking, their children are more likely to experience it.
  2. Sleep Deprivation: Lack of sleep or irregular sleep schedules can increase the likelihood of sleepwalking episodes.
  3. Stress and Anxiety: Psychological stress and anxiety can trigger sleepwalking in susceptible individuals.
  4. Medical Conditions: Conditions such as fever, sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome (RLS) can contribute to sleepwalking.
  5. Medications: Certain medications, including sedatives, hypnotics, and some psychiatric drugs, can induce sleepwalking.
Symptoms of Sleepwalking

Sleepwalking involves a range of activities that occur while the person is partially awake but still in a sleep state:

  • Sitting up in bed and looking around
  • Walking around the house
  • Performing routine activities, such as dressing or eating
  • Exhibiting unusual behaviors, such as urinating in inappropriate places
  • Leaving the house and wandering around outside

Sleepwalking episodes can last from a few seconds to over half an hour. During an episode, the sleepwalker may have a blank expression, be unresponsive to attempts to communicate, and be difficult to wake up.

Impact of Sleepwalking

While most sleepwalking episodes are harmless, they can pose significant risks, especially if the sleepwalker engages in dangerous activities like leaving the house or driving. Injuries from falls or accidents during sleepwalking can occur. Additionally, frequent sleepwalking can disrupt the sleep quality of both the sleepwalker and their bed partner or household members, leading to daytime fatigue and other sleep-related issues.

Treatment of Sleepwalking

Treatment for sleepwalking focuses on reducing triggers and ensuring safety:

  1. Improving Sleep Hygiene: Establishing a regular sleep schedule and creating a relaxing bedtime routine can help prevent sleepwalking episodes. Ensuring adequate sleep and reducing stress are also crucial.
  2. Medication: In some cases, medications such as benzodiazepines or antidepressants may be prescribed to reduce the frequency of sleepwalking episodes.
  3. Addressing Underlying Conditions: Treating any underlying medical or psychological conditions, such as sleep apnea or anxiety, can help reduce sleepwalking.
  4. Safety Precautions: Taking steps to ensure the sleepwalker’s safety, such as locking doors and windows, removing sharp objects, and using alarms or motion sensors, can prevent injuries during episodes.

The Intersection of Insomnia and Sleepwalking

While insomnia and sleepwalking are distinct parasomnias with different manifestations, they can intersect in various ways. For instance, the stress and anxiety associated with chronic insomnia can increase the likelihood of sleepwalking episodes. Conversely, frequent sleepwalking can disrupt sleep and contribute to insomnia, creating a cycle of poor sleep quality.

Both conditions highlight the complexity of sleep disorders and the importance of a comprehensive approach to diagnosis and treatment. Addressing one condition can often have beneficial effects on the other, emphasizing the interconnected nature of sleep health.


Insomnia and sleepwalking are significant parasomnias that affect millions of people worldwide. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatments of these conditions is essential for improving sleep quality and overall health. By addressing underlying factors, implementing effective treatments, and adopting healthy sleep habits, individuals can manage these disorders and enhance their quality of life. As research into sleep disorders continues to evolve, new insights and therapies will further aid in the understanding and management of insomnia and sleepwalking, paving the way for better sleep health for all.